Key Indicators

U.S. interest rates have remained low due to a pause in Fed interest rate hikes and a slow-down in the global economy. For borrowers, rates are still near historic lows even as we begin the eleventh year of the business cycle. For investors who need investment income, this continues to be a challenging environment.

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Interest Rates



Long-term interest rates in the U.S. remain low. The 10-year U.S. Treasury yield is still below 3%. Short-term interest rates, such as the 2-year, have continued to rise steadily due to earlier Fed rate hikes.

Taking a longer view, interest rates are still at the tail-end of a 35-year decline. Rates are likely to remain lower this cycle than in the past.

Interest Rates
Short run chart
Source: Federal Reserve

Interest Rates
Long run chart
Source: Federal Reserve

Yield Curve



The U.S. Treasury yield curve continues to flatten and even invert in the middle of the curve as long rates rise more slowly than short-term rates. A flatter curve is indicative of a late economic cycle, although it doesn’t necessarily suggest that a recession is imminent.

Additionally, low interest rates around the world have increased the attractiveness of U.S. Treasuries. This places a ceiling on how high interest rates can rise in the short run.

Yield Curve
Source: Federal Reserve

Yield Curve Steepness/Flatness
Source: Federal Reserve

Fed Funds Rate



The Federal Reserve has put its interest rate hikes on pause. Of the Fed’s two mandates, full employment and stable inflation, only the former has unequivocally been on track to achieve long-run targets. However, inflation appears to be accelerating, creating a challenging environment for Fed policy.

Federal Funds Rate
Short Run Chart
Source: Federal Reserve