Key Indicators

This bull market cycle is officially the longest in history. The market has risen significantly since the financial crisis, pushing valuation ratios above their long-run averages. Corporate earnings remain healthy and continue to propel stock prices. Volatility has increased and will likely remain high. Investors should stay disciplined and balanced as the cycle progresses.

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Major Indices

S&P 500

The stock market has generated spectacular returns since it bottomed on March 9, 2009. Few investors expected this type of market recovery at the time. After all, there have been many causes for concern over the past eight years including the U.S. debt ceiling, the Eurozone crisis, China’s economic imbalances and Brexit.

Through all this, U.S. economic growth has been steady, allowing corporate profits to grow and stocks to appreciate despite these macroeconomic and geopolitical concerns. While we are probably in the later stages of the cycle, there aren’t clear signs of an end just yet.

S&P 500 Index
Short run chart
Source: Standard & Poor's
S&P 500 Index
Long run chart
Source: Standard & Poor's


Valuation ratios are well above average for the broad market. The P/E ratio is now at its highest level since the dot-com bubble. This suggests that the market is no longer cheap, and by the same token, we should expect lower long-run returns.

Stock Market P/E Ratio
Price divided by estimated next-twelve-month earnings per share
Source: Thomson Reuters

Stock Market Valuations
Valuation ratios for the S&P 500 index, since 2003
Sources: Thomson Reuters, Clearnomics


Corporate earnings have grown rapidly since the financial crisis, driven by two factors. First, companies cut costs in the wake of the recession which increased profit margins. Second, companies have used excess cash to repurchase their shares, which boosts earnings-per-share. These developments have been positive for investors.

S&P 500 Earnings-Per-Share
Trailing 12 month EPS
Source: Thomson Reuters

Investor Sentiment

AAII Investor Sentiment Index

The standard sign of a stock market bubble is “irrational exuberance.” Investors begin to bet on future increases in stock prices based on past momentum or the promise of new technologies.

AAII Investor Sentiment Survey
Bull-bear spread and neutral responses
Source: AAII


Volatility Meter

Stock market volatility has risen in the past year but is still quite low by historical standards. Investors should not be surprised by increased volatility, but should stay balanced and focus on their long-term goals.

Source: CBOE